Selenocysteine: The amino acid that signal the amino-acid chains, which will become proteins, to stop growing, releasing the protein to perform its intended function in the body.

Selenocysteine is the analog of cysteine having the same structure as that of cysteine. But here sulphur atom is replaced by selenium. The Health Store Selenocysteine is the 21st amino acid found in the ribosome mediated protein synthesis. It  is  present in several enzymes (for example glutathione peroxidases, tetraiodothyronine 5′ deiodinases, thioredoxin reductases, formate dehydrogenases, glycine reductases, and some hydrogenases).  Selenocysteine has a structure similar to that of cysteine, but with an atom of selenium taking the place of the usual sulfur, forming a selenol group which is deprotonated at physiological pH.  Proteins that contain one or more selenocysteine residues are called selenoproteins. There is no single free pool of selenocysteine amino acid that exists within cells to be used

Selenocysteine is the protein, or food form, of the antioxidant selenium, and it is used in almost every cell process in the body. It is one of the only amino acids that is not directly coded into the genetic code, and no free pool of selenocysteine exists within cells to be used. This means that it is an essential amino acid and must be absorbed by cells and obtained through foods to maintain proper levels in the body. The body uses the selenocysteine amino acid to produce selenium. It is believed that this may protect against mercury toxicity, and people with low levels of selenium in their body may be more prone to poor liver function, low muscle mass, premature aging, and even heart disease.

Selenocysteine is created after the digestive system breaks proteins from the diet into its individual amino acids. Selenocysteine is a genetically coded amino acid, serving as a stop codon. Stop codons signal amino-acid chains, which will become proteins, to stop growing, releasing the protein to perform its intended function in the body.  Selenoproteins are formed when the amino acid selenocysteine — often called the 21st amino acid — combines with selenium from the diet in a very specific spot in the amino-acid chain.

Functions and benefits Selenocysteine

  • The important functions of selenocysteine in proteins are its anti –oxidant activity. This is due to its lower pKa and higher reduction potential.
  • It is also used in the preparation of variety of vitamins and lots of other supplements.
  • It is also fortified with livestock feeds.
  • Our body utilizes selenocysteine to form selenium, which is believe to play important role in preventing mercury toxicity as well as enhance liver functions.
  • Selenocysteine is not directly incorporated into other proteins. It provides its function on its own. For this reason it is highly reactive and not used in the same way as the body uses other amino acids.
  •  In some cases a marked decrease in catalytic activity of an enzyme is observed when a selenocysteine residue is replaced with cysteine. This substitution caused complete loss of glycine reductase selenoprotein A activity.
  • Selenocysteine is the 21st naturally occuring amino acid, and is coded for by the RNA codon UGA, which is normally a “stop” signal, but is modified in some organisms to create selenocysteine by a subsequent RNA loop, which is interpreted by a group of genes called the sel group, which are activated by the loop in the mRNA and produce molecule of tRNA for selenocysteine.

Selenocysteine deficiency 

  • People deficient with selenium have lean body mass, prone to premature aging.
  • Weaken the immune system, making the body more susceptible to illness, as well as lead to heart disease or hypothyroidism.

Selenium trace mineral powerful anti-oxidant prevents hemoglobin oxidation.  Synergistically vitamin E together maintain healthy heart liver add zinc relief enlarged prostate cancer prevention.

Rich food sources of  Selenocysteine

  • Animal origin: Selenocysteine animal sources are meat, poultry, chicken, egg, cheese fish, seafood and turkey.
  • Plant origin: Selenocysteine of plant origin contains wheat, oats, corn, rice, nuts especially of Brazil nuts, soybeans.
  •  Selenocysteine is an organic selenium compound found naturally in some plants such as garlic, onions, broccoli and wild leeks grown in high selenium soil.
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Glycine : The amino acid that is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate.

prostate_cancer
prostate_cancer (Photo credit: enochchoi)

Glycine  is a sweet-tasting, non-essential amino acid that can be produced from serine and threonine, which means that it is manufactured  in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet. Glycine was first isolated in 1820 from gelatin and is also found in good quantity in silk fibroin. Glycine is required to build protein in the body. It is required for the synthesis of nucleic acids, the construction of RNA as well as DNA and synthesis of bile acids and other amino acids in the body. Glycine is also found to be useful in assisting with the absorption of calcium in the body. It helps in retarding degeneration of muscles as it helps to supply extra creatine in the body. Glycine is important in the body’s manufacture of hormones responsible for a strong immune system.

 

 

 

 

Glycine is the simplest amino acid and is the only amino acid that is not optically active (it has no stereoisomers). This amino acid is essential for the biosynthesis of nucleic acids as well as of bile acids, porphyrins, creatine phosphate, and other amino acids. On a molar basis, glycine is the second most common amino acid found in proteins and enzymes being incorporated at the rate of 7.5 percent compared to the other amino acids. Glycine is also similar to gamma-aminobutyric acid and glutamic acid in the ability to inhibit neurotransmitter signals in the central nervous system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Only the L form of amino acids are constituents of protein. Glycine is an important part of GTF (glucose tolerance factor). The prostate gland produces fluid that contains glycine and researchers think that it may have a positive influence on normal prostate function.  It is present in considerable amounts in prostate fluid. Glycine may play a role in maintaining the health of the prostate, since a study of 45 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) found that 780 mg of glycine per day for two weeks and then 390 mg for the next two and a half months, taken in combination with equal amounts of the amino acids, alanine and glutamic acid, reduced symptoms of the condition. This effect has been reported by others. Glycine also enhances the activity of neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain that are involved in memory and cognition.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Function and Benefits of Glycine

  • Glycine is used by the nervous system and functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, which makes it important to help prevent epileptic seizures
  • Glycine is also used in the treatment of manic depression and hyperactivity
  • Glycine also participates in the major energy producing biochemical processes in the body
  • This amino acid is also found to be produce in prostate fluid present in males so it is considered to be important for prostate normal functioning.
  • Glycine is the part of glutathione which is a coenzyme involved in many biochemical reactions. The important function of glutathione is that it helps in the maintenance of the cell integrity by protecting –SH group of hemoglobin, catalase and lipoproteins of the cell membrane. So glycine has an important antioxidant action.
  • Glycine is necessary for central nervous system function and a healthy prostate.

Deficiency Symptoms of Glycine

Few people are glycine deficient, in part because the body makes its own supply of the non-essential amino acids, and because it is abundant in food sources.

Rich Food Sources of Glycine

Glycine is mainly found in protein rich food.

  • Animal sources: Fish, dairy foods, meat, cheese etc
  • Plant sources: beans, soybean, spinach, pumpkin, kale, cabbage, cauliflower, burdock root, cucumber, kiwi , banana, etc
  • Glycine is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured from other amino acids in the liver; it does not have to be obtained directly through the diet.

Serine : The amino acids that is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies.

Serine is is a nonessential amino acid. Serine was first isolated in 1865 from sericin, a silk protein, it can be synthesized in the body from glycine , but this process requires the presence of sufficient amounts of vitamins B3 and B6 and folic acid.  Glycine is converted into serine by the addition of hydroxymethyl group and this reaction is catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyl transferase enzymes which also requires the two coenzymes namely, tetrahydrofolate and pyridoxal phosphate.

Serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies, and is a constituent of brain proteins and nerve sheaths. It is important in the production of cell membranes, and muscle tissue synthesis.   It is important in RNA and DNA function, cell membrane formation, and creatine synthesis. Cancer-preventative. However, too-high serine levels in the body may have adverse effects on the immune system.

Function and Benefits of Serine

  • Serine is required for the metabolism of fat, tissue growth and the immune system as it assists in the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies.  Some derivatives (e.g. ethanolamine) are also important components of the phospholipids found in biological membranes.
  • It performs an important function in the catalytic role of numerous enzymes, for example it has been found to occur in the active sites of trypsin, chymotrypsin and various other enzymes.
  • Serine is also utilized in the synthesis of tryptophan amino acid which then gives rise to important neurotransmitter the serotonin in the central nervous system. Their deficiency leads to depression, irritability, insomnia, anxiety and confusion.
  • Serine has found to increase the absorption of creatine. Creatine is important for muscles as it make them strong and increases their mass.
  •  It is a component of brain proteins and the protective myelin sheaths that cover nerve fibers. It is important in RNA and DNA function, cell membrane formation, involved in the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, and muscle synthesis
  • Serine can be made from glycine in the body, but this process requires the presence of sufficient amounts of vitamins B3 and B6 and folic acid
  • It is also used in cosmetics as a skin moisturizer.
  • Serine stimulates the synthesis of glucose (blood sugar) in the liver. For this reason, eating proteins foods that are rich in serine will help stabilize the body against oscillations of blood sugar levels after eating. Serine is known to be the precursor to cysteine, along with methionine.

Serine deficiency

Deficiency leads to depression, irritability, insomnia, anxiety and confusion.

Rich Food Sources of Serine

  • Animal origin sources: These include : meat, beef, dairy products like cheese etc.
  • Plant origin sources: These include :  almonds, asparagus, chickpea, cow pea, flax-seed,  lentils, sesame seed,  walnut and soy beans.

Aspartic acid : The amino acid that increases stamina, good for fatigue and depression, and plays a vital role in metabolism.

Aspartic acid was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seed.  Aspartic acid, also called asparaginic acid, is one of the nonessential amino acids. “Nonessential” means that our bodies produce it even if we don’t get this amino acid from the food we eat.

Aspartic acid is one of two amino acids (the other is glutamic acid) that has a negatively charged carboxylate group on the side chain. This gives aspartic acid an overall negative charge at physiological hydrogen ion concentrations (approximately pH 7.3).  Although aspartic acid is considered a non-essential amino acid, it plays a paramount role in metabolism during construction of other amino acids and biochemicals in the citric acid cycle. Among the biochemicals that are synthesized from aspartic acid are asparagine, arginine, lysine, methionine, threonine, isoleucine, and several nucleotides.

Function and Benefits of Aspartic Acid

  • Combines with other amino acids to form compounds that absorb and remove toxins from the bloodstream.
  • It has also found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine system for example in anterior pituitary it stimulates the following hormonal secretions of prolactin, growth hormone and luteinizing hormone
  • Because aspartic acid increases stamina, it is good for fatigue and depression, and plays a vital role in metabolism. Chronic fatigue may result from low levels of aspartic acid, because this leads to lowered cellular energy.
  •  It is good for athletes and helps to protect the liver by aiding in the removal of excess ammonia.
  • It helps to move certain minerals across the intestinal lining and into the blood and cells, aids cell function, and aids the function of RNA and DNA, which are the carriers of genetic wormation.
  • It enhances the production of immunoglobulins and antibodies (immune system proteins). Plant protein, especially that found in sprouting seeds, contains an abundance of aspartic acid.
  • It also aids in the detoxification of liver from various drugs and chemicals.

Deficiency Symptoms of Aspartic Acid

Deficiency symptoms of Aspartic Acid may include fatigue and depression.

Rich Food Sources of Aspartic Acid
  • Animal source: Aspartic acid is present in different types of meat like luncheon or sausage meat.
  • Plant sources: Aspartic acid is found in sugar cane, avocado, asparagus,  sugar beets, oat flakes, molasses, sprouting seeds etc
  • Supplements of asparatic acid are also selling in the market in the form of magnesium aspartate and in the sweeteners.

Nickel : The trace mineral that aids in iron absorption, as well as adrenaline and glucose metabolism.

Nickel is one of the trace mineral or micronutrient in our body since it is present in very small amount in the our body but it plays an important part in overall health of the human body and in bodily processes. Nickel  aids in iron absorption, as well as adrenaline and glucose metabolism, hormones, lipid, cell membrane,  improves bone strength and may also play a role in production of red blood cells. Optimal growth, healthy skin, bone structure, enhances alkaline phosphate.

Nickel and  Cobalt share left / right-sided cell receptors and are essential to human health. While a Cobalt + Vitamin B12 relationship is well documented, a similar, but less documented affiliation applies to Nickel + Vitamin C.  Also less documented is the control nickel and cobalt exert over the muscular walls of the body’s arteries.  Cobalt specifically affects the right coronary artery, resulting in vasodilation with low levels, and vasoconstriction with high levels, while nickel exerts the same effect on the left coronary artery.

Functions of Nickel

  • Nickel is found to be beneficial being an important cofactor to various enzymes where it acts to accelerate the normal chemical reactions occurring in our body.
  • This element has been shown to take part in reaction catalyzed by oxidoreductases and hydrolyses (e.g. urease)
  • Nickel is in RNA and DNA of our body where it functions in association with these nucleic acids.
  • It probably has a role in stabilizing RNA structure.
  • It is found to be helpful in normal bone functioning and health.
  • Nickel is an important factor in the cell membrane and the lipid also.

Deficiency of Nickel

Since it is traced element, deficiency of it us rare. But it is found that due low amount of nickel in the bodies of some individual certain liver as well as kidney diseases arise in them.

Rich Food Sources of Nickel

It is found in many foods and these include both animal as well as plant sources.

Plants are the main dietary source of nickel. Plants grown in soil contaminated with nickel will have a higher content of nickel in them. Some rich sources of this mineral  include fruits, in some vegetables, grains , peas, dried beans, chocolate, nuts and oats. Animal foods are a poor source of nickel, while drinking water contributes to nickel considerably.

Source: http://www.acu-cell.com/nico.html

Vitamin B11 (Salicylic acid) : The vitamin along with vitamin B12,that is involved in the formation of RNA and DNA.

 

Salicylic acid is an important beta hydroxy vitamin also known as Vitamin B11. It is a crystalline and organic acid. Salicylic acid is obtained from the metabolism of salicin. Vitamin B11 functions in the DNA and RNA syntheses, essential for the body. It is necessary for cell division. By this way, it helps growth. It is necessary for the development of the fetus nervous system.  It is synthesized in the human body by the phenylalanine amino acid. There are many benefits of this vitamin and hence vitamin b11 is essential for our body. If sufficient amount of vitamin b11 is not provided to our body, then many complications can occur. Such complications are anaemia, tiredness and a lack of appetite, some unexpected changes to the mucous membranes, and some changes in the small intestine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Functions of Vitamin B11 Salicylic acid

Vitamin B11 is very important for our good health. Vitamin B11 provides various health benefits to the body. Some of its necessary functions are as follow:

  • Improves the milk production when breast feeding
  • Can help to protect against cancer
  • Salicylic acid is used in the manufactures of certain creams for treating acne. It acts to correct the faulty desquamation function of the skin causing new growth off skin earlier while sloughing off the dead skin. It is found to penetrate the follicles therefore it is good and beneficial in the treatment of acne.
  • It is also necessary for the growth and in the formation of tissues of the body.
  •  Improves appetite
  • Gives babies and children immunity against infections
  • Vitamin B11 in accompany with vitamin B12 take part in the formation of RNA and DNA,
  • Helps preventing the developmental birth defect Spina bifida
  • Vitamin B11 is very important for re-methylation of homocysteine and biosynthesis of nucleotides
Deficiency of Vitamin B11 and its Symptoms
  • Depressed growth
  • Anaemia
  • Tiredness
  • Feathering in chicks
  • Lack of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Lower Immunity
  • Fatigue

Sources of Vitamin B11 Salicylic acid

  • The main source of vitamin b11 is green vegetables like Spinach, Kale, Collard greens, etc
  • Other source of vitamin B11 are oranges, fruits  and potatoes .
  • Vitamin B11 is presents in both animal and plant kingdom

 

 

 

 

Source : http://forgetmedicine.com/vitamin-b11.html

 

Vitamin B4 (Adenine) : The vitamin that is an key component of DNA and RNA, nucleic acids that carry very valuable and unique genetic information about everyone of us.

Vitamin B4 also known as Adenine is the member of the Vitamin B-Complex family. Vitamin B4 is also one of the water-soluble vitamins.  Adenine act as a  compound that acts as a co-enzyme with other compounds such as vitamins and is mostly known for its function  speed up the processes of producing energy in our body. That is why it is essential to provide our body with this important vitamin that can be done by adding sufficient amounts of food sources of Vitamin B4 to our daily diet.

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin B4(Adenine) is also considered a purine derivative, which is a necessary element for proper protein synthesis and related chemical processes. Besides, vitamin B4 is an key component of DNA and RNA, nucleic acids that carry very valuable and unique genetic information about everyone of us. Along with proteins, these acids are principal for normal development and functioning of any human body or other living organisms and all forms of life on earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adenine is the one of the nitrogenous bases of DNA also helpful in making code for DNA and is very important component of the DNA. It is a purine. Adenine forms a bond with thiamine in the DNA.  This vitamin B4 also forms a part of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is important in the transport of energy between many reactions and also forms adenosine which plays an important role in various biochemical processes. It enables the change of phosphate group which then provide energy which is very necessary for various cellular reactions and for cells’ life.

 

 

 

 

Also, adenine plays a very important role in biochemical processes linked to cell metabolism. In combination with sugar ribose, adenine forms such compound as adenosine, which further participates in formation of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine monophosphate. These nucleotides are supposed to take part in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Vitamin B4 can be found as an element of various coenzymes in human body, which combine with vitamins to produce good amounts of energy. As it was said before, it is one of the main benefits of Vitamin B4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Functions of Vitamin B4 Adenine

  • Since it acts as a co-enzyme with other vitamins so it therefore enhances metabolism.
  • It increases formation of antibodies which are helpful in counteracting various infections.
  • It plays a role as a precursor of assimilation of other B-vitamins.
  • Its helps to remove fatigue, weakness and debility.
  • It plays a role as a precursor of assimilation of other B-vitamins.
  • It causes promotion of cell formation as well as normal growth.
  • It Increases the transit time of the intestinal tract of the body.
  • It also helps to maintain balance of blood sugar levels in our body.
  • It strengthens our immune system and its response.
  • It causes promotion of cell formation as well as normal growth.
  • It causes prevention of cellular mutation and formation of free radical

Deficiency Symptoms:
The following symptoms would be most likely associated with
Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) deficiency: Retarded growth rate, blood and skin disorders, constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, muscle weakness, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), sensitivity to insulin, physical and mental depression, anemia, fatigue, vertigo (dizziness), allergies, prone to infections, weakened immune system response

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Natural Sources of Vitamin B4

  • The following herbs:  Blessed thistle, blue cohosh, burdock, capsicum (cayenne), caraway, cascara sagrada, catnip, cloves, couch grass, ginger,golden seal, hawthorn, hops, jojoba, kelp, lady’s slipper, mullein, rose hips, sage, sarsaparilla, spearmint, strawberry, thyme, yucca.
  • Other source include raw unadulterated honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fresh vegetables, most fresh fruits. It is believed that all complex carbohydrates contain varying amounts of Vitamin B-4 (Adenine).

 

 

Source: http://www.rspharmchem.com/vitamin-b4.htm