Tag Archives: Cell biology

Form Healthy Blood Cells With 12 B Vitamin

Vitamin Line-Up
Vitamin Line-Up (Photo credit: Earthworm)

The brilliance of 12 B Vitamin uncovered!

12 b vitamin is one particular b vitamin that is known to be essential to maintaining a significantly healthy and balanced body. Usually known as Cobalamin, the 12b vitamin is necessary for the processes to convert carbohydrates, fats and proteins from food directly into energy. 12 b also, more notably, will help continue to keep the red blood cells wholesome and consequently avert heart disease as well as keeping the immune system functioning at its optimum level. In accessory, 12 b is utilized to generate the safeguarding of all neurological cellular material in the human body.

"WANNA KEEP 'EM HEALTHY^ OVERCOOKING DEST...
“WANNA KEEP ‘EM HEALTHY^ OVERCOOKING DESTROYS VITAMINS”^ – NARA – 516013 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
  1. The most significant functionality of 12 b is to create and support healthful red blood cells.
  2. Nevertheless, all cells need to have 12 b to keep them healthy.
  3. It is the white blood cells, amidst others, that require 12 b to help make certain that the immune system stays functioning appropriately.
  4. All of the nerve cells in the body also need 12 b to form their protective fatty layer.
  5. This is essential for all of the nerves but is particularly so for those in the human brain.
  6. Reason being, If there is not adequate 12 b to develop this protective layer then the brain will not function adequately.

 

Remarkably, the volume of 12 b that the body requires is comparatively small but is needed on a regular basis. However, 12 b on its own is not enough as the body cannot absorb it easily. To help the body absorb 12 b the stomach produces intrinsic factor which enables more of the 12 b to be absorbed. 12 b is only found in animal foods such as liver, eggs, fish and meat but most people consume far more than their recommended daily amount of 12 b. This is not a problem as the body can only process about half of the 12 b that is consumed. It is also worth noting that the body can recycle the 12 b which cuts down on the impact of a 12 b deficiency. However, rigid vegetarians or vegans are likely to require 12 b supplements if they do not consume any animal products that include 12 b.

Cell adhesions in migrating cells
Cell adhesions in migrating cells (Photo credit: TheJCB)

One last thing, If the entire body does not have plenty of 12 b then anaemia is the most noticeable warning sign. Naturally, this is simply because of the fact that there is not ample 12 b to make healthy and balanced red blood cells. Anaemia can also be triggered by the body not creating enough intrinsic factor to help absorb the 12 b that is available in the food eaten. The body’s need for certain vitamins is likely to be a significantly less important issue especially once a man or woman gets to 50 and this will lead to less 12 b being absorbed and supplements of 12 b may be necessary. Kids are also at risk from anaemia because they may not eat the food items that contain 12 b. Pregnant women need more 12 b because the little one is absorbing 12 b during the pregnancy to grow adequately.

Glutathione: The amino acid that prevent oxidative stress in most cells and helps to trap free radicals that can damage DNA and RNA.

Glutathione is actually a compound classified as a tripeptide made up the amino acids gamma-glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine and is also known as gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycine or GSH.  Like carnitine, glutathione is not technically one of the amino acids. It is a compound classified as a tripeptide, and the body produces it from the amino acids cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. Because of its close relationship to these amino acids, however, it is usually considered together with them.

The primary biological function of glutathione is to act as a non-enzymatic reducing agent to help keep cysteine thiol side chains in a reduced state on the surface of proteins. Glutathione is also used to prevent oxidative stress in most cells and helps to trap free radicals that can damage DNA and RNA. There is a direct correlation with the speed of aging and the reduction of glutathione concentrations in intracellular fluids. As individuals grow older, glutathione levels drop, and the ability to detoxify free radicals decreases.

Supplemental glutathione is expensive, and the effectiveness of oral formulas is questionable. To raise glutathione levels, it is better to supply the body with the raw materials it uses to make this compound: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. The N-acetyl form of cysteine, N-acetyl­cysteine (NAC), is considered particularly effective for this purpose

Function and Benefits of Glutathione

  • Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant and detoxifies harmful compounds in the liver, which is then excreted through bile.
  • Glutathione is also found in the lungs and the intestinal tract. It is needed for carbohydrate metabolism and appears to exert anti-aging effects, aiding in the breakdown of oxidized fats that may contribute to atherosclerosis.
  • A significant component of the collective antioxidant defenses, and a highly potent antioxidant and antitoxin in its own right.
  • Glutathione is a very important detoxifying agent, enabling the body to get rid of undesirable toxins and pollutants. It forms a soluble compound with the toxin that can then be excreted through the urine or the gut.
  • Glutathione is required in many of the intricate steps needed to carry out an immune response. For example, it is needed for the lymphocytes to multiply in order to develop a strong immune response, and for ‘killer’ lymphocytes to be able to kill undesirable cells such as cancer cells or virally infected cells.
  • Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is produced in the liver. The largest stores of glutathione are found in the liver, where it detoxifies harmful compounds so that they can be excreted through the bile. Some glutathione is released from the liver directly into the bloodstream, where it helps to maintain the integrity of red blood cells and protect white blood cells.
  • lutathione is the major antioxidant produced by the cell, protecting it from ‘free radicals’ (‘oxygen radicals‘, ‘oxyradicals’). These highly reactive substances, if left unchecked, will damage or destroy key cell components (e.g. membranes, DNA) in microseconds. Glutathione recycles other well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E, keeping them in their active state.

Deficiency Symptoms of Glutathione

  • A deficiency of glutathione first affects the nervous system, causing such symptoms as lack of coordination, mental disorders, tremors, and difficulty maintaining balance. These problems are believed to be due to the development of lesions in the brain.
  • A study sponsored in part by the National Cancer Institute found that people with HIV disease who had low glutathione levels had a lower survival rate over a three-year period than those whose glutathione levels were normal. As we age, glutathione levels decline, although it is not known whether this is because we use it more rapidly or produce less of it to begin with. Unfortunately, if not corrected, the lack of glutathione in turn accelerates the aging process.

Rich Food Sources of Glutathione

avocado, watermelon, asparagus, grapefruit, potato, acorn squash, strawberries, orange, tomato, cantaloupe, broccoli, okra, peach, zucchini, spinach and walnut

Vitamin B10 ( Pteroylmonoglutamic acid) The vitamin that’s good for treating skin depigmentation.

File:Vitaminb10-foods.jpgVitamin B10  having a chemical name Pteroylmonoglutamic acid is belongs to the vitamin B family; its old name was vitamin R. It is a water-soluble vitamin and is often referred to as a component of the vitamin B complex.This vitamin is thought to be essential for the body. Vitamin B10 is involved in the production of folic acid by intestinal bacteria; it is coenzyme in protein metabolism, and blood cell formation; important for skin health. Vitamin B10 is used in sunscreen to lessen the risk of skin cancer from ultra-violet exposure. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatic fever. Vitamin B10 is also very essential for alleged anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects.

 

 

 

 

 

Benefits and functions of Vitamin B10

  • It was once used to combat rheumatic fever.
  • Vitamin B10 is found helpful in formation of erythrocyte also called red blood cells.
  • It acts a coenzyme and causes protein utilization in the body.
  • It is very useful when use in sunscreen. It is also necessary for those individuals who want to avoid the ultraviolet UV) rays coming from the sun that can lead to skin neoplasia.
  • It is also found to be beneficial in hair pigmentation and skin.
  • Vitamin B10 is very powerful ingredient as skin protector against pollution.
  • It is very useful against male infertility as well as vitiligo.
  • It is known for its treating depression.
  • Vitamin B10 is very essential for the patients of fibrotic skin disorders.
Vitamin B10 Deficiency:

  • irritability and depression;
  • constipation;
  • nervousness;
  • skin problems and eczema.
Food sources of Vitamin B10
  • It is richly found in both animals as well as plant sources.
  • These include green leafy vegetables e.g. spinach, others include bran, mushrooms, blackstrap molasses, wheat germ and whole grains etc.

Vitamin B4 (Adenine) : The vitamin that is an key component of DNA and RNA, nucleic acids that carry very valuable and unique genetic information about everyone of us.

Vitamin B4 also known as Adenine is the member of the Vitamin B-Complex family. Vitamin B4 is also one of the water-soluble vitamins.  Adenine act as a  compound that acts as a co-enzyme with other compounds such as vitamins and is mostly known for its function  speed up the processes of producing energy in our body. That is why it is essential to provide our body with this important vitamin that can be done by adding sufficient amounts of food sources of Vitamin B4 to our daily diet.

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin B4(Adenine) is also considered a purine derivative, which is a necessary element for proper protein synthesis and related chemical processes. Besides, vitamin B4 is an key component of DNA and RNA, nucleic acids that carry very valuable and unique genetic information about everyone of us. Along with proteins, these acids are principal for normal development and functioning of any human body or other living organisms and all forms of life on earth.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adenine is the one of the nitrogenous bases of DNA also helpful in making code for DNA and is very important component of the DNA. It is a purine. Adenine forms a bond with thiamine in the DNA.  This vitamin B4 also forms a part of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is important in the transport of energy between many reactions and also forms adenosine which plays an important role in various biochemical processes. It enables the change of phosphate group which then provide energy which is very necessary for various cellular reactions and for cells’ life.

 

 

 

 

Also, adenine plays a very important role in biochemical processes linked to cell metabolism. In combination with sugar ribose, adenine forms such compound as adenosine, which further participates in formation of adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine monophosphate. These nucleotides are supposed to take part in the propagation of many hormonal stimuli. Vitamin B4 can be found as an element of various coenzymes in human body, which combine with vitamins to produce good amounts of energy. As it was said before, it is one of the main benefits of Vitamin B4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Functions of Vitamin B4 Adenine

  • Since it acts as a co-enzyme with other vitamins so it therefore enhances metabolism.
  • It increases formation of antibodies which are helpful in counteracting various infections.
  • It plays a role as a precursor of assimilation of other B-vitamins.
  • Its helps to remove fatigue, weakness and debility.
  • It plays a role as a precursor of assimilation of other B-vitamins.
  • It causes promotion of cell formation as well as normal growth.
  • It Increases the transit time of the intestinal tract of the body.
  • It also helps to maintain balance of blood sugar levels in our body.
  • It strengthens our immune system and its response.
  • It causes promotion of cell formation as well as normal growth.
  • It causes prevention of cellular mutation and formation of free radical

Deficiency Symptoms:
The following symptoms would be most likely associated with
Vitamin B-4 (Adenine) deficiency: Retarded growth rate, blood and skin disorders, constipation, nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, muscle weakness, hypoglycemia (low blood sugar), sensitivity to insulin, physical and mental depression, anemia, fatigue, vertigo (dizziness), allergies, prone to infections, weakened immune system response

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Natural Sources of Vitamin B4

  • The following herbs:  Blessed thistle, blue cohosh, burdock, capsicum (cayenne), caraway, cascara sagrada, catnip, cloves, couch grass, ginger,golden seal, hawthorn, hops, jojoba, kelp, lady’s slipper, mullein, rose hips, sage, sarsaparilla, spearmint, strawberry, thyme, yucca.
  • Other source include raw unadulterated honey, bee pollen, royal jelly, propolis, most fresh vegetables, most fresh fruits. It is believed that all complex carbohydrates contain varying amounts of Vitamin B-4 (Adenine).

 

 

Source: http://www.rspharmchem.com/vitamin-b4.htm

 

 

 

You Thought You Knew Your Body: 11 Crazy Features Of Human Anatomy

What an amazing creation the human body is. This week i have learned so many new details about the body. We have so much to learn. I know i’m not the only one. Take a look at this article. This is very educational. Interesting stuff. Enjoy!

The truth about the normal human body can be stranger than fiction.

To prove it, here are 11 weird facts about the body you thought you knew.

1. Your Tongue

1. Your Tongue

What does your tongue have in common with an octopus’ tentacle and an elephant’s trunk? All three are examples of a unique structure called the “muscular hydrostat,” a bundle of muscles that work without the assistance of bones. Like anything made mostly of water, the hydrostat has a constant volume, so when certain cells contract, the whole thing has to expand somewhere else. The result is a body part that is both strong and flexible. If your tongue were as big as an elephant’s trunk, it could uproot trees too.

2. Your Hyoid Bone

This wee, horseshoe-shaped bone will never appear in the song by James Weldon Johnson, as it’s connected to…no bones at all, in a meaningful sense; its job is independent of the rest of the skeleton. Also known as the lingual bone, the hyoid bone sits atop the larynx, providing an anchor for the muscles on the floor of the mouth, the tongue. Don’t worry: you’re not likely to break this bone, unless someone starts choking you to death. At that point, you’ve got bigger problems.

3. Your Philtrum

3. Your Philtrum

No, that little indent under your nose isn’t there to make it difficult to apply lipstick in the dark, but it doesn’t serve any other purpose either. The indent, called the philtrum, is just a residual reminder of your time in the womb: in utero, the two sides of your face develop independent of one another, then join at the middle. When the two sides fail to fuse properly, the result is a cleft palate, which occurs in about 1 of every 750 births. Ancient Romans found the philtrum erotic, and named that lipstick-thwarting dip in the upper lip “Cupid’s Bow.” In fact, the word philtrum comes from a Greek term meaning “love potion.”

4. Your Hair

Chelsa Skees via flickr

People love tossing around hair facts. That old wives tale about it growing after you’re dead? A fun fallacy. After you die, your hair and nails don’t continue growing, but the skin retreats as it dehydrates, causing that creepy illusion of ghoulish growth.

In truth, hair is a weird combination of living and dead. The living hair follicle pushes out the hair, which is made up of different kinds of non-living yet protective cells made of keratin — the same keratin that’s on your top (dead) layer of skin, in the lenses of your eyes, and your nails. When your hair turns grey, it means your pigment cells are dying. Yet another hairy reminder of your own mortality.

5. Your Nails

Ever notice how your toenails grow more slowly than your fingernails? That’s because there’s an evolutionary correlation between the length of your “terminal phalanges” (the outer-most bones in your toes and finger-tips) and the rate at which your nails grow. The tips of your toes are shorter than your fingertips, so your toenails don’t grow as fast. In the same way, the nail on your middle finger will grow faster than the nail on your pinky. The seemingly random correlation has to do with the lessening necessity of claws through human evolution. If your fingernails are thick and grow quickly, ask yourself the question: “Should I be digging more?”

6. Your Bioluminescence

6. Your Bioluminescence

Fireflies and jellyfish glow, but humans? Believe it. The phenomenon is a natural byproduct of the metabolic process, and scientists have long been aware of the presence of bioluminescence in most living creatures. But it wasn’t until 2009, when a team of Japanese researchers developed camera 1000 times more sensitive than the human eye, that human bioluminescence was captured on film. The light show apparently works on a 24-hour cycle — brightest in the late afternoon and on the cheeks, forehead and neck. Next time someone tells you “you’re glowing,” you can take it literally.

7. Your Walking Proteins

Of the microscopic menagerie that is your cell biology, the most bizarre member is perhaps the kinesin protein, a “motor” protein whose job it is to deliver important molecules to their necessary cellular destinations. What’s most remarkable is the kinesin’s mode of transportation: It “walks” along its micro-pathway using two structures at its base commonly referred to as “feet.” Though scientists disagree as to exactly how these feet were “made for walking,” there’s no denying that the mode of transportation closely resembles that of the humans they assist.

8. Your Sonic Hedgehog

8. Your Sonic Hedgehog

What’s more complex than cell biology? Cell biology in your infinitely complex brain. In 1993, scientists discovered a protein in the hippocampus instrumental in developing a variety of neural traits. Isolated in fruit flies, the protein causes spines to grow on the back, so the scientists named it “Sonic” after the spiny Sega Genesis character. Similar proteins are named and desert hedgehog and Indian hedgehog. Who says scientists don’t have fun?

9. Your Liver

The lumpy, lobey, unwieldy liver gets a bad rap, but if you didn’t have it in there cleaning out your system, you’d be looking pretty bad yourself. Lucky for you, the liver is perhaps the most resilient of the major organs: it can regenerate from only 25% of its tissue mass. You wouldn’t vote it the cutest kid in school, but “Most Likely to Succeed”? Maybe.

10. Your Vomeronasal Organ

There are important organs, and there are ones just along for the ride. As far as useless leftover body parts, you’ve probably heard about about the tailbone, the appendix, even the little toe (wee wee wee all the way home). But you may not have heard of the “vomeronasal organ,” located unglamorously inside the nose.

Back in the day, the little guy used to aid in detecting subtle airborne information, most importantly, pheromones from a member of the opposite sex. In the age of modern man, the vomeronasal organ doesn’t appear to be doing much — it doesn’t even have nerves connecting it to the brain. Still, scientists continue to argue about the potential chemical messages it might be sending, titillating that part of us that is still animal.

11. Your Sexy Bits

And speaking of pheromones and vestigial organs…

Men and women have more in common “down there” then you might think. Because the sex organs of a fetus don’t develop until about five months into development, males and females have remnants of the opposite sexual organs — and some are more useful than others. While the penis is basically an enlarged version of a lady’s clitoris, the male remnant of the lower vagina is less useful. Called the prostatic utricle (Latin for “pouch of the prostate”), the little-discussed fleshy sac just kind of hangs out near the prostate gland, leading nowhere. In the 1800s, the structure was more commonly called the vagina masculina, which requires no translation.

Source: http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/113299#ixzz1jgxqqHFg