Proline was first isolated from casein in 1901, and unlike any of the other amino acids it is readily soluble in alcohol. It is a non-essential amino acid and can be synthesized from glutamic acid and does not require dietary sources.
Proline is one of the cyclic aliphatic amino acids that is a major component of the protein collagen, the connective tissue structure that binds and supports all other tissues. Proline is synthesized from glutamic acid prior to its incorporation into pro-collagen during messenger RNA translation. After the pro-collagen protein is synthesized, it is converted by post-translational modification into hydroxyproline. On a molar basis proline is incorporated into protein at a rate of 4.2 percent with respect to other amino acids.
Proline improves skin texture and aids collagen formation and helps contain the loss of collagen during aging. Collagen in the skin contains hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, which is formed from proline and lysine, in which ascorbic acid seems to be important in this conversion. Collagen contains about 15% proline. It is also thought to be important in the maintenance of muscles, joints and tendons.
Function and Benefits of Proline
- Proline is associated with the production of collagen which promotes healthy skin, joints, tendons, and heart muscle.
- Proline helps strengthen cardiac muscle.
- The metabolism of proline is connected to enzymes that require niacin and vitamin C.
- Helps strengthen cardiac muscle, improves skin texture and aids collagen formation and helps contain the loss of collagen during aging.
- Proline gives rise to glutamic acid which is an important amino acid. This glutamic acid then gives rise to very important compounds such as glutathione, glutamine, gamma aminobutyric acid, alpha ketoglutarate etc.
- Proline is interchangeable with the ornithine, thus it can lead to the formation of urea as well. On the other hand, ornithine has also been found to form proline.
- Proline is also converted to hydroxyproline by post translation reaction that is after it has been incorporated into the protein molecule.
- Thus, proline is also an important amino acid. Its supplements are also available in the market. These are especially important in those people who are suffering from diseases due to collagen deficiency and also in those suffering from skin disorders and injuries.
- Collagen in the skin contains hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, which is formed from proline and lysine, in which ascorbic acid seems to be important in this conversion. Collagen contains about 15% proline. It is also thought to be important in the maintenance of muscles, joints and tendons.
- It is not so needed to be obtained from the food as it is itself formed within our body. But it is richly present in the meat.
- Asparagus, avocados, bamboo shoots, beans, brewer’s yeast, broccoli rabe, brown rice bran, cabbage, caseinate, chives, dairy products, eggs, fish, lactalbumin, legumes, meat, nuts, seafood, seaweed, seeds, soy, spinach, watercress, whey, whole grains.
- Vitamin rich foods are also important also.
Symptoms of proline deficiency
None – it is readily obtained and available to the body.
- Glutamic Acid : The amino acid that functions mainly include building muscle and supporting brain function. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)
- Ornithine: The amino acid that helps to prompt the release of growth hormone, which promotes the metabolism of excess body fat. (inspired-weightloss.com)
- Arginine : This non-essential amino acid is required in muscle metabolism – maintaining the nitrogen balance, and helping with weight control since it facilitates the increase of muscle mass, while reducing body fat. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)
- Lysine : The essential amino acid that is a basic building block of all protein. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)