Valine is a member of the branched-chain amino acid family, along with leucine and isoleucine. The three branched-chain amino acids constitute approximately 70 percent of the amino acids in the body proteins. As such, their value in the formation and maintenance of structural and functional integrity in humans is unmeasured. Valine is an amino acid obtained by hydrolysis of proteins and was first isolated by the German chemist Emil Fischer in 1901 from casein and is not only an essential amino acid but is also a branched-chain amino acid ( the others are isoleucine and leucine) found in high concentration in the muscles.
Valine is an aliphatic amino acid that is closely related to leucine and isoleucine both in structure and function. These amino acids are extremely hydrophobic and are almost always found in the interior of proteins. They are also seldom useful in routine biochemical reactions, but are relegated to the duty of determining the three-dimensional structure of proteins due to their hydrophobic nature. They are also essential amino acids and must be obtained in the diet. Valine is incorporated into proteins and enzymes at the molar rate of 6.9 percent when compared to the other amino acids.
Function and Benefits of Valine
- Valine, an essential amino acid, has a stimulant effect. It is needed for muscle metabolism, tissue repair, and the maintenance of a proper nitrogen balance in the body.
- It is one of the branched-chain amino acids, which means that it can be used as an energy source by muscle tissue.
- It may be helpful in treating liver and gallbladder disease, and it is good for correcting the type of severe amino acid deficiencies that can be caused by drug addiction.
- Valine has some stimulating effects. It plays role in the muscle metabolism and also helps in growth and repair of tissues. Valine also maintains nitrogen balance in our body.
- Valine is the glucogenic amino acid so it provides glucose.
- A disease known as maple serum urine disease results in case of error in metabolism of valine and it is then excreted in the urine.
- Valine is found in high concentrations in muscle tissue.
- Promotes mental vigor, muscle coordination and calm emotions.
- Preventing muscle loss at high altitudes.
- Animal origin: Valine sources from animal origin includes meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods like cheese etc
- Plant origin: Valine plant sources include lentils, peanuts, soy,
- mushrooms, sesame seeds and leafy greens
- Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by the inability to metabolize leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The disease is so named because urine from affected people smells like maple syrup.
- A deficiency may affect the myelin covering of the nerves.
- Glutamic Acid : The amino acid that functions mainly include building muscle and supporting brain function. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)
- Threonine : The essential amino acid that helps to maintain the proper protein balance in the body. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)
- Lysine : The essential amino acid that is a basic building block of all protein. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)
- Isoleucine : One of the essential amino acids, is needed for hemoglobin formation and also stabilizes and regulates blood sugar and energy levels. (blissreturned.wordpress.com)